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C D E
F G H
J K L
M N O P
Q R S T
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- ABPA (Allergic Bronchopulmonary
- A disease characterized by asthma symptoms,
eosinophilia and abnormalities on chest X-ray
- Severe or with sudden onset and a short
- Acute respiratory failure
- Sudden, severe inability to perform gas exchange.
- Tubes that carry air into and out of the
- Airway obstruction
- Narrowing, clogging, or blocking of the air
- Alpha-1 Antitrypsin Deficiency (A1AT
- A protein deficiency that predisposes to the
development of premature emphysema.
- Tiny sac-like air spaces in the lung where
carbon dioxide and oxygen are exchanged.
- Amniotic fluid
- Fluid that surrounds and cushions the fetus in
its mothers womb.
- Specific proteins produced by the bodys
immune system that bind with foreign proteins (antigens).
- Substances that activate the immune system and
react with antibodies produced by the immune response.
- Largest artery in the body; delivers
oxygen-rich blood from the heart to the body.
- ARDS - Acute (Adult) Respiratory Distress Syndrome
- A syndrome caused by severe inflammation in the body, usually by a severe
pneumonia, but can be caused by pancreatitis, shock, severe infection
anywhere in the body and is associated with a severe lack of oxygen,
respiratory distress usually requiring life support.
- Smallest arteries in the body.
- Blood vessels that carry blood away from the
heart. All arteries carry oxygen-rich blood except the pulmonary artery and
its branches through which oxygen-poor blood is pumped from the heart to the
- To inhale foreign material into the windpipe (trachea). A
significant reason for the development of pneumonia.
- Respiratory condition marked by recurrent
attacks of wheezing, coughing, shortness of breath, and labored breathing
caused by narrowing of the airways.
- One of the two upper chambers of the heart.
The right atrium receives blood depleted of oxygen from the veins; the left
atrium receives blood with fresh oxygen from the lungs.
- Blood Pressure
- Pressure of the blood against the walls of the
- BOOP (Bronchiolitis
Obliterans with Organizing Pneumonia)
- An inflammatory disease of the lungs usually
associated with an infection such as viral but can also be idiopathic
(without known cause).
- Larger air passages of the lungs.
- Chronic dilation of the bronchi and
- Smaller air passages of the lungs.
- Inflammation of the smallest bronchioles,
usually caused by viral infections.
- Inflammation of the bronchi. Acute bronchitis
comes on suddenly and usually clears up in a few days. Chronic bronchitis
lasts for a long period and recurs over several years.
- Tightening of the muscles surrounding the
bronchi; opposite of bronchodilation.
- A term for more than 100 diseases in which
abnormal cells multiply without control.
- The tiniest blood vessels. Capillary networks
connect the arterioles and venules.
- Carbon dioxide
- Waste gas resulting from chemical reactions in
the body cells.
- Cancer of the epithelial tissue lining or
covering an organ.
- Flexible, rubbery connective tissue that
cushions bones and joints.
- Basic subunit of every living organism; the
simplest unit that can exist as an independent living system.
- Of long duration; frequently recurring.
- Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease
- Lung disease in which both chronic bronchitis
and emphysema are present.
- Connective tissue
- Tissue that connects, supports, or surrounds
other tissues and organs.
- Cor pulmonale
- Heart disease due to resistance to the passage
of blood through the lungs; it often leads to right heart failure.
- Natural body mechanism for ridding the
respiratory tract of irritating and harmful substances.
- CT Scan
- An x-ray that allows a much greater detailed examination of different parts
of the body. Is used to evaluate the lungs and the center part of the
chest which is an area difficult to see on a plain chest x-ray.
- Cystic Fibrosis
- A serious genetic disease of excretory glands
affecting the lungs and other organs. It causes production of very thick
mucus that interferes with normal digestion and breathing.
- The muscle that separates the chest from the
- A passage or tube with well-defined walls for
the passage of air or liquids.
- Shortness of breath; difficult or labored
- Abnormal accumulation of fluid in body
- Sudden blocking of an artery by a clot or a
bit of foreign material brought to the site by the bloodstream; usually a
blood clot but may be a fat globule, air bubble, piece of tissue, or a clump
- Chronic lung disease in which there is
permanent destruction of the alveoli.
- Layer of epithelial cells lining the
- Layer of tissue that covers surfaces of
- The tube through which food passes from the
throat to the stomach.
- Act of breathing out (exhalation).
- Formation of fibrous tissue as inflamed tissue
- Gas exchange
- Primary function of the lungs involving
transfer of oxygen from inhaled air into blood and of carbon dioxide from
blood into the lungs for exhalation.
- Genetic disease
- Disease caused by defective genes (basic unit
of heredity) inherited from one or both parents.
- Small lumps of cells caused by some types of
- The iron-containing protein in red blood cells
that carry oxygen to the tissues.
- General term for loss of blood caused by
injury to the blood vessels or by a low level of the blood elements
necessary for clotting.
- Accumulation of blood in the cavity around the
- The area where bronchi, blood vessels, and
nerves connect to each lung.
- Hypersensitivity pneumonitis
- A group of allergic lung disorders that result
from inhaling substances such as dusts and molds.
- High blood pressure.
- Not enough oxygen in the blood.
- Complex group of organs and cells that defend
the body against infections and disease.
- Invasion and multiplication of
disease-producing organisms in the body.
- Response of body tissues to injury. Typical
signs are heat, swelling, redness, and pain.
- Taking air into the lungs (inhalation).
- To wash out a body organ or cavity.
- Lung volume
- Amount of gas in the lungs. The total volume
of gas in the lungs is subdivided into compartments (volumes) and capacities
(combinations of two or more volumes). Tidal volume (TV or VT) is the volume
of air that enters the lungs during inspiration and leaves during
expiration. Functional residual capacity (FRC) is the volume of air
remaining in the lungs at the end of normal exhalation. Total lung capacity
(TLC) is the volume of air in the lungs following a maximal inspiration.
Vital capacity (VC) is the maximal volume of air that can be expelled from
the lungs following maximal inspiration. Residual volume (RV) is the volume
of air remaining in the lungs after maximum expiration. In general, lung
volumes increase in obstructive lung diseases and decrease in restrictive
- A well-defined, demarcated portion of an organ
- Lymph nodes
- Small, bean-shaped organs located along the
lymphatic vessels that filter bacteria, toxins, or cancer cells; also called
- Thin, flexible film of proteins and lipids
that encloses a cells contents, controlling what goes in and what comes
out of the cell; also a thin layer of tissue that covers a surface or lines
a cavity that also controls the substances that enter and leave an organ.
- Pertaining to the connective tissue that
connects and supports the various structures in the body.
- Metabolic processes
- Chemical processes by which food and oxygen
are transformed into other chemicals in the body.
- To form new sites of cancer in different
organs or tissues not directly connected with the original cancerous tumor.
- Smallest possible physical amount of a
- Thin, slippery fluid secreted by mucous
membranes and glands; becomes thick and sticky in lung disease.
- Substances that are necessary for growth,
development, and maintenance of life; food.
- Obstructive lung diseases
- Disease due to narrowing of any portion of the
airways that obstructs airflow; examples are COPD, cystic fibrosis, and
- Obstructive sleep apnea
- Occurs when tissues in the throat collapse and
block airflow in and out of the lungs during sleep. Despite efforts to
breathe, there is no flow of air.
- Colorless, odorless gas that makes up about 20
percent of the air we breathe. It is essential to life because it is used
for the chemical reactions that occur in the cells of the body.
- PaO 2
- Oxygen tension of arterial blood.
- PaCO 2
- Carbon dioxide tension of arterial blood.
- Altered functions in an individual or an organ
due to disease.
- Membrane that surrounds the lungs and lines
the thoracic cavity.
- PET Scan
- Positron Emission Tomography.
A scan that uses a labeled sugar molecule to detect evidence of cancer
in the body.
- Inflammation of the lungs.
- Inflammation of the lung tissue.
- Accumulation of air or gas in the pleural
cavity resulting in partial or complete collapse of the lung.
- Naturally occurring organic compounds
essential to the structure and function of the body.
- Relating to the lungs.
- Pulmonary artery
- Blood vessel that delivers oxygen-poor blood
from the right ventricle of the heart to the lungs.
- Pulmonary embolism
- Closure or narrowing of the pulmonary artery
or one of its branches by an embolism.
- Pulmonary function tests
- Procedures used for measuring how well the
lungs are working. The most common tests measure the ability of lungs to
move air into and out of the lung.
- Pulmonary hypertension
- Abnormally high blood pressure in the arteries
of the lungs.
- The isolation of persons exposed to infectious
- Red blood cells
- Cells that transport oxygen from the lungs to
all tissues of the body.
- Process of exchanging oxygen from the air for
carbon dioxide from the body; includes the mechanical process of breathing,
gas exchange, and oxygen and carbon dioxide transport to and from the cells.
- Respiratory failure
- Inability of the lungs to conduct gas
- Respiratory tree
- The structure in the chest composed of the
trachea, bronchi, bronchioles, and alveoli. It resembles an upside-down
tree; also called the tracheobronchial tree.
- Restrictive lung diseases
- Diseases that interfere with lung inflation;
examples are pulmonary fibrosis, sarcoidosis, pneumoconiosis, diseases of
the chest wall and pleura, and those of neuromuscular origin.
- Rare disease of unknown cause, occurring
primarily in young adults, that can affect the function of the lungs as well
as other organs and tissues.
- Lung disease caused by inhaling dust
- Smooth muscle
- Muscle that involuntarily performs automatic
tasks such as constricting blood vessels.
- Instrument used to measure lung air volumes
and flow rates.
- Squamous cell carcinoma
- Cancer that begins in the flat scale-like
cells in the skin and in tissues that line certain organs of the body
including the larynx.
- A type of hormone often times used to
treat inflammatory conditions of the lungs, such as asthma, and
- Fluid secreted by alveolar cells that reduces
the surface tension of pulmonary fluids and contributes to the elastic
properties of pulmonary tissue.
- Surface tension
- Property of a liquid, related to its chemical
structure, that causes its exposed surface to contract to the smallest area.
- Thoracic cage
- Bony structure formed by 12 pairs of ribs, the
sternum (breastbone) and vertebrae (back bone).
- The body between the neck and the abdomen; the
- A group or layer of similar specialized cells
that perform specific functions.
- Airway that connects the larynx to the lungs;
also called the windpipe.
- Small soft structure hanging from the soft
palate in the midline.
- Blood vessel that carries blood to the heart.
All veins carry oxygen-poor blood except the pulmonary vein and its branches
which carry oxygen-rich blood to the heart. The smallest veins are called
- Venous blood
- Blood that has given up its oxygen to the
tissues in exchange for carbon dioxide which it carries back to the lungs
for gas exchange.
- Exchange of air between the lungs and the
atmosphere so that oxygen can be exchanged for carbon dioxide at the
- A chamber of the heart that pumps blood out.
The right ventricle pumps it to the lungs where it picks up oxygen; the left
ventricle pumps it into the aorta and then on to the rest of the body.
- Infectious agent composed of a protein coat
around a nucleic acid core; viruses depend on living cells to reproduce.
Breathing with a rasp or whistling
sound; a sign of airway constriction or obstruction.